23rd CISM-IUTAM International Summer School on "Growth and Remodeling in Soft Biological Tissue"
June 12, 2017 — June 16, 2017
- Christian Cyron (Technische Universität München, München, Germany)
- Jay Humphrey (Yale University, New Haven, USA)
One of the most remarkable differences between classical engineering materials and living cells or tissues is the ability of the latter to grow and remodel in response to diverse stimuli. The mechanical behavior of living tissues is thus governed not only by an elastic or viscoelastic response to loading on short time scales (up to several minutes), but additionally by often crucial growth and remodeling responses on time scales of hours to months. Such growth and remodeling play important roles, for example, during morphogenesis in early life as well as in homeostasis and pathogenesis in adult tissues, which often adapt continuously to changes in their chemo-mechanical environment resulting from, for example, aging, diseases, injuries, or surgical interventions. Mechano-regulated growth and remodeling are observed in various soft tissues, ranging from tendons and arteries to the eye and brain, as well as in lower organisms and plants. Therefore, understanding and predicting growth and remodeling of living tissues and organisms is one of the most important challenges in biomechanics.
This course is addressed to doctoral students and postdoctoral researchers in engineering and applied mathematics. It will start with a few introductory lectures that summarize the motivation for study and the current state of the art; subsequent lectures will focus on cutting edge research. This way, the course will be accessible for participants with a basic background in nonlinear continuum mechanics or soft tissue biomechanics, but without any specific prior knowledge about soft tissue growth and remodeling. The lectures will address in particular:
- Important experimental and clinical observations, including tensional homeostasis, micromechanical and molecular foundations (mechanotransduction, signaling, etc.), pathologies (aneurysms, tortuosity, etc.), and observations from comparative biology and animal models;
- Major mathematical approaches to model growth and remodeling in soft tissues, including the kinematic growth theory, constrained mixture models, hybrid approaches, open system thermodynamics, and computational implementations;
- Archetypal biomechanical
phenomena that arise from growth and remodeling and that are not observed in classical solid or structural mechanics, including growth-induced instabilities, growth-induced residual stresses, and mechanobiological instabilities;
– Chemo-mechanical stimuli governing growth and remodeling and how they can be modeled appropriately in continuum mechanics using quantities such as Cauchy stress, Green-Lagrange strain, Eshelby stress, Mandel stress etc.
- Mathematical modeling of the interplay between growth and remodeling and biochemistry, including concepts from poroelasticity, configurational forces, and mass transport;
- Differences and similarities of growth and remodeling in different types of tissue, such as blood vessels, skin, tendons, ligaments, skeletal muscle, tumors, the heart, the brain, etc.